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What is Nuclear Energy
Fission and Fusion
Chemical reactions involve outer electrons
Nuclear reactions involve changes in nuclei
Two types of nuclear reactions are fusion and fission (others are radiation and transmutation)
Fission is when a nucleus breaks apart
Fusion involves adding nucleons to a nucleus
Fission is used in nuclear power plants and powered the first atomic bomb (21 kilotons)
Fusion powers stars and may also be used in thermonuclear bombs (60 megatons)
Fusion requires that the nucleons be close enough so that the “strong force” can form
Define: binding energy, nucleon, fission, nuclear fusion, radioactivity, half-life.
What evidence exists that mass and energy are interchangeable?
Which elements are most stable? Which can undergo fusion reactions? Which can undergo fission reactions?
What are the opposing forces that exist within the nucleus?
Explain how these two forces account for the region of stability in fig. 23.1.
1. Binding energy: the energy that holds nucleons together
Nucleon: protons and neutrons
Nuclear fission: breaking apart nuclei
Nuclear fusion: forming or adding to nuclei
Radioactivity: releasing small particles or energy from a nucleus
Half-life:time taken to lose ½ the radioactivity
2. The existence of binding energy is evidence that mass can be converted to energy
3. Fig. 23.1: elements (e.g. Fe-56) in the region of stability are most stable. Elements to the left (e.g. H-2) can undergo fusion, elements tonthe right (e.g. 120Sn) can undergo fission.
4. The “strong force” attracts adjacent nucleons. Electrostatic repulsion of protons pushes protons away from each other.
5. H has only a few nucleons, Fe has more. Thus, iron has more attractive forces holding the nucleus together. Smaller elements than Fe will fuse to get more net “strong force”. Large nuclei have more protons (more electrostatic repulsions) and can more easily separate. The “strong force” cannot compensate because it acts over very short distances. It’s a balance between attraction and repulsion.
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|Title||: Nuclear Energy | PPT Slides Download|
|Category||: Energy ad Environtment|
|Date||: Sunday, December 23rd 2012.|
|Download||: Download Nuclear Energy | PPT Slides Download PPT #1646|